Teleostei (teleosts) > Eupercaria/misc
(Various families in series Eupercaria) > Sciaenidae
(Drums or croakers)
Etymology: Otolithoides: Greek, ous, oto = ear + Greek, lithos = stone + Greek, suffix, oides = similar to (Ref. 45335).
More on author: Hamilton.
Environment: milieu / climate zone / depth range / distribution range
Marine; freshwater; brackish; benthopelagic; amphidromous (Ref. 51243). Tropical
Indo-Pacific: Pakistan to Papua New Guinea.
Length at first maturity / Size / Weight / Age
Maturity: Lm 19.6  range ? - ? cm
Max length : 160 cm TL male/unsexed; (Ref. 7050)
Found in coastal waters, estuaries and rivers (Ref. 4833).
Life cycle and mating behavior
Maturity | Reproduction | Spawning | Eggs | Fecundity | Larvae
Mature individuals are multiple spawners, breeding 2-3 times a year (Ref. 127658).
Kottelat, M., A.J. Whitten, S.N. Kartikasari and S. Wirjoatmodjo, 1993. Freshwater fishes of Western Indonesia and Sulawesi. Periplus Editions, Hong Kong. 221 p. (Ref. 7050)
IUCN Red List Status (Ref. 126983)
Threat to humans
Estimates based on models
Preferred temperature (Ref. 123201
): 27.1 - 29.1, mean 28.5 °C (based on 1146 cells).
Phylogenetic diversity index (Ref. 82804
= 0.7500 [Uniqueness, from 0.5 = low to 2.0 = high].
Bayesian length-weight: a=0.00617 (0.00389 - 0.00977), b=3.05 (2.92 - 3.18), in cm total length, based on LWR estimates for this species & (Sub)family-body (Ref. 93245
Trophic level (Ref. 69278
): 3.9 ±0.4 se; based on size and trophs of closest relatives
Resilience (Ref. 120179
): Very Low, minimum population doubling time more than 14 years (K = 0.58-0.98;).
Fishing Vulnerability (Ref. 59153
): Very high vulnerability (90 of 100).