Environment: milieu / climate zone / depth range / distribution range
Freshwater; demersal. Subtropical; 43°N - 28°N
North America: USA from Savannah River drainage, Georgia to Ocklockonee River drainage, Florida and Georgia; throughout the peninsular Florida.
Size / Weight / Age
Maturity: Lm ?  range ? - ? cm
Max length : 132 cm TL male/unsexed; (Ref. 5723); common length : 59.5 cm TL male/unsexed; (Ref. 12193); max. published weight: 9.6 kg (Ref. 4699)
Morphology | Morphometrics
Numerous dark spots on the anterior part of its body and head. Lacks plates on ventral surface of the isthmus, wider snout and wider lower jaws. Dark in coloration (Ref. 37032).
Facultative air-breathing (Ref. 126274); Adults occur in sluggish mud or sand-bottomed pools of quiet lowland streams and lakes. Usually found near vegetation.
Life cycle and mating behavior
Maturity | Reproduction | Spawning | Eggs | Fecundity | Larvae
Observed presence of two distinct waves of developing oocytes in a study indicates a group-synchronous ovary in this species, thus, subsequent spawning during the same breeding season may occur though unverifiable in the same study (Ref. 57432).
Robins, C.R., R.M. Bailey, C.E. Bond, J.R. Brooker, E.A. Lachner, R.N. Lea and W.B. Scott, 1991. Common and scientific names of fishes from the United States and Canada. Am. Fish. Soc. Spec. Publ. (20):183 p. (Ref. 3814)
IUCN Red List Status (Ref. 126983)
Threat to humans
ReferencesAquacultureAquaculture profileStrainsGeneticsAllele frequenciesHeritabilityDiseasesProcessingNutrientsMass conversion
Estimates based on models
Phylogenetic diversity index (Ref. 82804
= 0.5781 [Uniqueness, from 0.5 = low to 2.0 = high].
Bayesian length-weight: a=0.00229 (0.00112 - 0.00470), b=3.19 (3.00 - 3.38), in cm total length, based on LWR estimates for this species & (Sub)family-body (Ref. 93245
Trophic level (Ref. 69278
): 3.7 ±0.58 se; based on food items.
Generation time: 7.3 ( na - na) years. Estimated as median ln(3)/K based on 2 growth studies.
Resilience (Ref. 120179
): Medium, minimum population doubling time 1.4 - 4.4 years (Preliminary K or Fecundity.).
Fishing Vulnerability (Ref. 59153
): Moderate to high vulnerability (52 of 100).