Environment: milieu / climate zone / depth range / distribution range
Marine; brackish; demersal; depth range 1 - 20 m (Ref. 5217). Tropical; 12°N - 23°S, 77°W - 34°W
South America: Rivers and estuaries from Gulf of Venezuela to mouth of the Amazon River.
Size / Weight / Age
Maturity: Lm ?  range ? - ? cm
Max length : 63.0 cm TL male/unsexed; (Ref. 5217); common length : 40.0 cm TL male/unsexed; (Ref. 5217); max. published weight: 58.30 g (Ref. 118626)
(total): 1. Three pairs of barbels on rostral region, two pairs on lower jaw, one pair on posterior end of maxilla; end of maxilla barbel reaching insertion of pectoral fin; body yellow-brown, whitish ventrally; each fin membrane blackish distally (Ref. 13608).
Found on muddy bottoms of shallow brackish waters; also in marine waters. Reproduction seems to occur between May and June. The female lays down 20-30 eggs having a diameter of 10-12 mm, agglutinated in mucus. The male guards the eggs for 10-12 days until hatching (Ref. 35381). Marketed fresh.
Life cycle and mating behavior
Maturity | Reproduction | Spawning | Eggs | Fecundity | Larvae
Taylor, W.R. and N.A. Menezes, 1978. Ariidae. In W. Fischer (ed.) FAO species identification sheets for fishery purposes. West Atlantic (Fishing Area 31). volume 1. [pag. var.]. FAO, Rome. (Ref. 3265)
IUCN Red List Status (Ref. 126983)
Threat to humans
Traumatogenic (Ref. 58010)
Fisheries: minor commercial
Common namesSynonymsMetabolismPredatorsEcotoxicologyReproductionMaturitySpawningSpawning aggregationFecundityEggsEgg development
ReferencesAquacultureAquaculture profileStrainsGeneticsAllele frequenciesHeritabilityDiseasesProcessingNutrientsMass conversion
Estimates based on models
Preferred temperature (Ref. 123201
): 26.9 - 28.2, mean 27.5 °C (based on 253 cells).
Phylogenetic diversity index (Ref. 82804
= 0.5002 [Uniqueness, from 0.5 = low to 2.0 = high].
Bayesian length-weight: a=0.00676 (0.00410 - 0.01116), b=3.12 (2.97 - 3.27), in cm total length, based on LWR estimates for this species & (Sub)family-body (Ref. 93245
Trophic level (Ref. 69278
): 4.0 ±0.6 se; based on size and trophs of closest relatives
Resilience (Ref. 120179
): Medium, minimum population doubling time 1.4 - 4.4 years (Preliminary K or Fecundity.).
Prior r = 0.28, 95% CL = 0.16 - 0.49, Based on 1 stock assessment.
Fishing Vulnerability (Ref. 59153
): Moderate to high vulnerability (45 of 100).
Nutrients (Ref. 124155
): Calcium = 107 [57, 214] mg/100g; Iron = 0.926 [0.592, 1.507] mg/100g; Protein = 17 [15, 19] %; Omega3 = 0.152 [0.086, 0.257] g/100g; Selenium = 50.2 [27.5, 103.3] μg/100g; VitaminA = 19 [9, 42] μg/100g; Zinc = 1.24 [0.86, 1.87] mg/100g (wet weight);