Environment: milieu / climate zone / depth range / distribution range
Freshwater; brackish; demersal; pH range: 7.2 - 8.0; dH range: 10 - 25. Temperate; 8°C - 22°C (Ref. 12468); 50°N - 43°N, 15°E - 40°E
Europe: Northern Black Sea basin from Danube (up to Vienna) to Kuban drainages; Caspian basin (Volga and Ural drainages).
Length at first maturity / Size / Weight / Age
Maturity: Lm 25.0, range 20 - 30 cm
Max length : 40.0 cm SL male/unsexed; (Ref. 59043); max. reported age: 12 years (Ref. 59043)
Morphology | Morphometrics
Distinguished uniquely from congeners in Europe by the absence of canine teeth. Differs further by the combination of the following characters: second dorsal fin with 19-21½ branched rays; 70-83 scales on lateral line; and cheek scaled (Ref. 59043).
Inhabits large, turbid rivers and lakes, and brackish coastal lakes and estuaries. Most active at dusk and dawn. Feeds on small fish and invertebrates. Larvae and juveniles are pelagic and feed on zooplankton. Attains first sexual maturity at 3-4 years of age and 20-30 cm SL. Spawns in April-May. May undertake short spawning migrations (Ref. 59043).
Life cycle and mating behavior
Maturity | Reproduction | Spawning | Eggs | Fecundity | Larvae
Individual females spawn 2-3 portions of eggs. May undertake short spawning migrations. Males are territorial. They excavate shallow depressions in sand or gravel, or exposed plant roots where eggs are deposited, usually along shallow shores at 1-2 m depth (Ref. 59043).
Kottelat, M. and J. Freyhof, 2007. Handbook of European freshwater fishes. Publications Kottelat, Cornol and Freyhof, Berlin. 646 pp. (Ref. 59043)
IUCN Red List Status (Ref. 126983)
Threat to humans
Fisheries: commercial; gamefish: yes
ReferencesAquacultureAquaculture profileStrainsGeneticsAllele frequenciesHeritabilityDiseasesProcessingNutrientsMass conversion
Estimates based on models
Phylogenetic diversity index (Ref. 82804
= 0.5312 [Uniqueness, from 0.5 = low to 2.0 = high].
Bayesian length-weight: a=0.00832 (0.00339 - 0.02042), b=3.09 (2.89 - 3.29), in cm total length, based on LWR estimates for this (Sub)family-body shape (Ref. 93245
Trophic level (Ref. 69278
): 4.1 ±0.66 se; based on food items.
Resilience (Ref. 120179
): Low, minimum population doubling time 4.5 - 14 years (Preliminary K or Fecundity.).
Fishing Vulnerability (Ref. 59153
): Moderate vulnerability (39 of 100).