Environment: milieu / climate zone / depth range / distribution range
Marine; demersal; depth range 0 - 30 m (Ref. 5227). Tropical; 28°N -
Eastern Pacific: California, USA (Ref. 28023) to northern Chile, including the Galapagos Islands.
Size / Weight / Age
Maturity: Lm ?  range ? - ? cm
Max length : 45.7 cm TL male/unsexed; (Ref. 5592); common length : 30.4 cm TL male/unsexed; (Ref. 5592)
Found in shallow water and seaweed-covered reefs as well as on open, sandy areas (Ref. 5592). An opportunistic predator, this cryptic fish lies unseen on the reef top waiting for small fishes to pass by (Ref. 5592). Although the flesh is of excellent quality, it is not utilized commercially due to its venomous spines (Ref. 9341).
Life cycle and mating behavior
Maturity | Reproduction | Spawning | Eggs | Fecundity | Larvae
Grove, J.S. and R.J. Lavenberg, 1997. The fishes of the Galápagos Islands. Stanford University Press, Stanford, 863 p. (Ref. 28023)
IUCN Red List Status (Ref. 126983)
Threat to humans
Traumatogenic (Ref. 28023)
Fisheries: subsistence fisheries; gamefish: yes
ReferencesAquacultureAquaculture profileStrainsGeneticsAllele frequenciesHeritabilityDiseasesProcessingNutrientsMass conversion
Estimates based on models
Preferred temperature (Ref. 123201
): 20.6 - 29.1, mean 26.9 °C (based on 255 cells).
Phylogenetic diversity index (Ref. 82804
= 0.5000 [Uniqueness, from 0.5 = low to 2.0 = high].
Bayesian length-weight: a=0.01318 (0.00626 - 0.02776), b=3.03 (2.86 - 3.20), in cm total length, based on LWR estimates for this Genus-body shape (Ref. 93245
Trophic level (Ref. 69278
): 3.9 ±0.2 se; based on size and trophs of closest relatives
Resilience (Ref. 120179
): Low, minimum population doubling time 4.5 - 14 years (Preliminary K or Fecundity.).
Fishing Vulnerability (Ref. 59153
): Moderate vulnerability (36 of 100).
Nutrients (Ref. 124155
): Calcium = 120 [65, 274] mg/100g; Iron = 1.02 [0.53, 2.15] mg/100g; Protein = 17.9 [16.3, 19.5] %; Omega3 = 0.29 [0.13, 0.77] g/100g; Selenium = 47 [23, 134] μg/100g; VitaminA = 28 [9, 82] μg/100g; Zinc = 1.2 [0.8, 1.8] mg/100g (wet weight);