Teleostei (teleosts) > Cichliformes
(Cichlids, convict blennies) > Cichlidae
(Cichlids) > Pseudocrenilabrinae
Etymology: Hemichromis: Greek, hemis = half + Greek, chromis = a fish, perhaps a perch (Ref. 45335).
More on author: Guichenot.
Environment: milieu / climate zone / depth range / distribution range
Freshwater; benthopelagic; pH range: ? - 7.0; dH range: ? - 15. Tropical; 23°C - 25°C (Ref. 2060)
Africa: widely distributed in the coastal rivers of Lower Guinea, from the Ntem in Cameroon to Kouilou basin in Republic of Congo, including the Woleu, Ogowe and Nyanga rivers (Ref. 81260, 123791). Also in the Dja River, an affluent of the Middle Congo basin (Ref. 123791). Populations from entire Congo River basin and southern African basins, including Okavango, Zambesi and Cuanza (Ref. 11970, 120641), are also considered as conspecific (Ref. 123791), and may represent a distinct species (Ref. 81260). Also reported from West Africa in Guinea, Sierra Leone, Liberia, Togo, Benin and Nigeria (Ref. 43352, 81260), but this needs confirmation (Ref. 53405).
Length at first maturity / Size / Weight / Age
Maturity: Lm 10.7, range 10 - 11.5 cm
Max length : 18.7 cm SL male/unsexed; (Ref. 81260)
(total): 13 - 16;
soft rays: 7 - 10. Diagnosis: Hemichromis elongatus can be distinguished from H. camerounensis by the presence of a single red opercular spot or a mixture of reddish and yellowish spots dorsally of the large black opercular spot instead of two red opercular spots on the both sides of the black spot in H. camerounensis (Ref. 123791). It can be distinguished from H. fasciatus by the absence of small black dots between the first three dark stripes on the sides of the body of adults (Ref. 123791). With 4-5 distinct blotches or ovoid bars along lateral mid-line (Ref. 44091, 81260), but bands not obvious in large males which assume a very dark to almost black coloration (Ref. 44091). Scales olive to yellow; series of thin red dots often forming horizontal lines along the mid-portion of flanks; normally 2 rows of teeth on upper jaw (Ref. 81260). Magenta spot on gill cover (Ref. 44091).
Found in shallow lakes and streams (Ref. 58302). Highly predaceous and thus used in some areas for tilapia control; feeds on fish, shrimp and aquatic insects; very aggressive and territorial (Ref. 44091); the parents guard the nest and larvae (Ref. 7248). Pair-bonding, substrate brooder (Ref. 81260). Oviparous (Ref. 205).
Daget, J. and G.G. Teugels, 1991. Hemichromis. p. 187-194. In J. Daget, J.-P. Gosse, G.G. Teugels and D.F.E. Thys van den Audenaerde (eds.) Check-list of the freshwater fishes of Africa, CLOFFA, ISNB, Brussels; MRAC, Tervuren; and ORSTOM, Paris. Vol. 4. (Ref. 5644)
IUCN Red List Status (Ref. 126983)
Threat to humans
ReferencesAquacultureAquaculture profileStrainsGeneticsAllele frequenciesHeritabilityDiseasesProcessingNutrientsMass conversion
Estimates based on models
Phylogenetic diversity index (Ref. 82804
= 0.5001 [Uniqueness, from 0.5 = low to 2.0 = high].
Bayesian length-weight: a=0.01820 (0.00989 - 0.03347), b=3.00 (2.85 - 3.15), in cm total length, based on LWR estimates for this species & (Sub)family-body (Ref. 93245
Trophic level (Ref. 69278
): 3.7 ±0.58 se; based on food items.
Resilience (Ref. 120179
): High, minimum population doubling time less than 15 months (tm<1; Fec=500).
Fishing Vulnerability (Ref. 59153
): Low vulnerability (13 of 100).
Nutrients (Ref. 124155
): Calcium = 145 [78, 271] mg/100g; Iron = 1.41 [0.78, 2.70] mg/100g; Protein = 18.5 [17.1, 20.0] %; Omega3 = 0.539 [0.201, 1.522] g/100g; Selenium = 61.7 [25.0, 155.9] μg/100g; VitaminA = 68.4 [16.0, 211.8] μg/100g; Zinc = 2.03 [1.36, 3.09] mg/100g (wet weight);