Environment: milieu / climate zone / depth range / distribution range
Marine; brackish; demersal; amphidromous (Ref. 51243); depth range 10 - 150 m (Ref. 4376). Tropical; 26°C - 29°C (Ref. 4959); 29°N - 33°S, 28°E - 149°W
Indo-West Pacific: Red Sea, Persian Gulf and East Africa to Australia, New Caledonia and Tahiti.
Length at first maturity / Size / Weight / Age
Maturity: Lm 7.9, range 8 - 9.1 cm
Max length : 11.3 cm SL male/unsexed; (Ref. 7050); common length : 8.0 cm TL male/unsexed; (Ref. 3424)
soft rays: 14. Body silvery. Naked head; with nuchal spine. Mouth strongly oblique; nostrils situated above eyes (Ref. 48635). Protracted mouth pointing upward; Tip of maxilla reaching well below level of lower margin of eye. Body depth twice or slightly more than standard length. Lateral line ending before dorsal fin.
Schooling species found in shallow waters, usually near the bottom (Ref. 30573). Occasionally enters brackish waters (Ref. 4833, 48635). Swims in loose groups (Ref. 48635). Feeds on zooplankton including copepods, mysids, and larval fishes and crustaceans (Ref. 11441). Sold fresh and dried salted; also used for fishmeal.
James, P.S.B.R., 1984. Leiognathidae. In W. Fischer and G. Bianchi (eds.) FAO species identification sheets for fishery purposes. Western Indian Ocean (Fishing Area 51). Vol. 2. FAO, Rome. pag. var. (Ref. 3424)
IUCN Red List Status (Ref. 126983)
Threat to humans
ReferencesAquacultureAquaculture profileStrainsGeneticsAllele frequenciesHeritabilityDiseasesProcessingNutrientsMass conversion
Estimates based on models
Preferred temperature (Ref. 123201
): 22 - 28.5, mean 27.2 °C (based on 1101 cells).
Phylogenetic diversity index (Ref. 82804
= 0.5078 [Uniqueness, from 0.5 = low to 2.0 = high].
Bayesian length-weight: a=0.01202 (0.00915 - 0.01580), b=3.00 (2.93 - 3.07), in cm total length, based on LWR estimates for this species (Ref. 93245
Trophic level (Ref. 69278
): 2.8 ±0.27 se; based on food items.
Resilience (Ref. 120179
): High, minimum population doubling time less than 15 months (K=1.20-1.50).
Fishing Vulnerability (Ref. 59153
): Low vulnerability (14 of 100).