Teleostei (teleosts) > Clupeiformes
(Herrings) > Alosidae
(Shads and Sardines)
Etymology: Alosa: Latin, alausa = a fish cited by Ausonius and Latin, halec = pickle, dealing with the Greek word hals = salt; it is also the old Saxon name for shad = "alli" ; 1591 (Ref. 45335).
Environment: milieu / climate zone / depth range / distribution range
Freshwater; pelagic. Subtropical; 41°N - 40°N, 23°E - 24°E
Europe: Lakes Koronia (extirpated) and Volvi, Greece (ref. 59043).
Length at first maturity / Size / Weight / Age
Maturity: Lm 12.4, range 11 - 14 cm
Max length : 35.1 cm FL male/unsexed; (Ref. 10545); max. published weight: 600.00 g (Ref. 10545); max. reported age: 10 years (Ref. 10545)
(total): 3 - 4;
soft rays: 16 - 21. This species is distinguished from its congeners entering the freshwater in Mediterranean basin by the following characters: gill rakers 106-128; teeth on palatine and vomer well-developed, especially in juveniles (Ref. 59043).
Landlocked, lacustrine, pelagic, in upper water layers during summer and descending to deeper layers in winter. It spawns at 1-2 years, near shores above gravel or coarse sand, with most individuals spawning more than one season. Spawning starts when temperature reach about 19-20°C, in July to August (Ref. 59043). Adults form schools in the epilimnion during summer and tend to congregate in shallow waters near shores. They feed on plankton (cladocerans and copepods) and small fishes (Ref. 10545, 59043). It is threatened by water abstraction and pollution (Ref. 26100).
Deposits eggs near the shore where the sediment consists of gravel or coarse sand (Ref. 10545). Most individuals spawn in more than one season (Ref. 59043).
Economidis, P.S. and A.I. Sinis, 1991. Alosa macedonica (Vinciguerra 1921). p. 297-308. In H. Hoestlandt (ed.) The freshwater fishes of Europe. Vol. 2. Clupeidae, Anguillidae. AULA-Verlag Wiesbaden. (Ref. 10545)
IUCN Red List Status (Ref. 126983)
Threat to humans
Fisheries: minor commercial
ReferencesAquacultureAquaculture profileStrainsGeneticsAllele frequenciesHeritabilityDiseasesProcessingNutrientsMass conversion
Estimates based on models
Phylogenetic diversity index (Ref. 82804
= 0.5000 [Uniqueness, from 0.5 = low to 2.0 = high].
Bayesian length-weight: a=0.00603 (0.00347 - 0.01045), b=2.95 (2.80 - 3.10), in cm total length, based on LWR estimates for this species & Genus-body shape (Ref. 93245
Trophic level (Ref. 69278
): 3.7 ±0.64 se; based on food items.
Resilience (Ref. 120179
): Medium, minimum population doubling time 1.4 - 4.4 years (tm=1; tmax=10; K=0.403).
Fishing Vulnerability (Ref. 59153
): Low to moderate vulnerability (29 of 100).