Environment: milieu / climate zone / depth range / distribution range
Marine; demersal; depth range 5 - 80 m (Ref. 9840). Deep-water; 4°S - 21°S
Western Pacific: northern Australia and New Guinea, including the Arafura Sea and Timor Sea.
Size / Weight / Age
Maturity: Lm ?  range ? - ? cm
Max length : 25.0 cm WD male/unsexed; (Ref. 6871)
Found on the continental shelf (Ref. 6871, 75154). Size at birth about 11 cm WD (Ref. 6871). Exists as two color forms. Ovoviviparous (Ref. 50449).
Life cycle and mating behavior
Maturity | Reproduction | Spawning | Eggs | Fecundity | Larvae
Exhibit ovoviparity (aplacental viviparity), with embryos feeding initially on yolk, then receiving additional nourishment from the mother by indirect absorption of uterine fluid enriched with mucus, fat or protein through specialised structures (Ref. 50449). Distinct pairing with embrace (Ref. 205).
Last, P.R. and J.D. Stevens, 1994. Sharks and rays of Australia. CSIRO, Australia. 513 p. (Ref. 6871)
IUCN Red List Status (Ref. 126983)
Threat to humans
Fisheries: of no interest
ReferencesAquacultureAquaculture profileStrainsGeneticsAllele frequenciesHeritabilityDiseasesProcessingNutrientsMass conversion
Estimates based on models
Preferred temperature (Ref. 123201
): 26.2 - 28.6, mean 27.7 °C (based on 312 cells).
Phylogenetic diversity index (Ref. 82804
= 0.5039 [Uniqueness, from 0.5 = low to 2.0 = high].
Bayesian length-weight: a=0.01096 (0.00342 - 0.03513), b=3.11 (2.86 - 3.36), in cm total length, based on LWR estimates for this (Sub)family-body shape (Ref. 93245
Trophic level (Ref. 69278
): 3.4 ±0.3 se; based on size and trophs of closest relatives
Resilience (Ref. 120179
): Low, minimum population doubling time 4.5 - 14 years (Assuming fecundity<100).
Fishing Vulnerability (Ref. 59153
): Moderate vulnerability (40 of 100).