Thunnus orientalis (Temminck & Schlegel, 1844)
Pacific bluefin tuna
Tulingan,  Turingan
Thunnus orientalis
photo by FAO

Family:  Scombridae (Mackerels, tunas, bonitos), subfamily: Scombrinae
Max. size:  300 cm FL (male/unsexed); max.weight: 450 kg; max. reported age: 15 years
Environment:  pelagic-oceanic; brackish; marine; depth range 1 - 550 m, oceanodromous
Distribution:  North Pacific: Gulf of Alaska to southern California and Baja California and from Sakhalin Island in the southern Sea of Okhotsk south to northern Philippines. There are four substantiated records of this subspecies in the southern hemisphere: off Western Australia, southeast Pacific (37°11'S, 114°41'W) and Gulf of Papua (Ref. 10997). The species occurs mainly in the northern Pacific but ventures into New Zealand waters for at least three months during spring and early summer (Ref. 83312).
Diagnosis:  Mean number of gill rakers 35.9. First ventrally directed parapophysis on vertebra number 8. Dorsal wall of body cavity has a narrow bulge with lateral concavity and wide lateral trough. Caudal keels dark.
Biology:  Epipelagic, usually oceanic, but seasonally coming close to shore (Ref. 168). Tolerates ample temperature intervals (Ref. 168). Forms schools by size, sometimes with other scombrids (Ref. 168). Migrates between June and September in a northward direction along the coast of Baja California, Mexico and California (Ref. 168). A voracious predator that feeds on a wide variety of small schooling fishes and squids, also on crabs crabs and to a lesser degree on sessile organisms (Ref. 168). Marketed fresh and frozen.
IUCN Red List Status: Near Threatened (NT); Date assessed: 15 January 2021 (A2bd) Ref. (126983)
Threat to humans:  harmless
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