Monotaxis grandoculis (Forsskål, 1775)
Humpnose big-eye bream
Bitilya,  Humpnose big-eye bream,  Babaan,  Batuan,  Bukawin gulat,  Bunggok,  Buyayohon,  Gapas-gapas,  Kamasuhan,  Katambak,  Kilawan,  Kuambal piring,  Kutambak,  Lagao,  Lahundon,  Luhundon,  Malaking-mata,  Mamimboyao,  Marilat,  Maya-maya,  Petilya,  Puti-mata,  Tabudlo
Monotaxis grandoculis
photo by Randall, J.E.

Family:  Lethrinidae (Emperors or scavengers), subfamily: Monotaxinae
Max. size:  60 cm TL (male/unsexed); max.weight: 5,890.0 g
Environment:  reef-associated; marine; depth range 0 - 100 m, non-migratory
Distribution:  Indo-Pacific: Red Sea and East Africa to the Hawaiian Islands and southeastern Oceania, north to Japan, south to Australia.
Diagnosis:  Dorsal spines (total): 10-10; Dorsal soft rays (total): 10-10; Anal spines: 3-3; Anal soft rays: 9-9. This species is distinguished by the following characters: body oblong, greatest body depth of adults about 2.2 in SL; head profile strongly convex in front of eye, the snout sloping steeply; eye large 2.7 (juveniles) to 3.8 (adults) in HL; inner surface of the pectoral fin base is densely scaled; pectoral rays usually 14; caudal fin forked with pointed tips; lateral line scales 44-47; scale rows above lateral line (to base of middle dorsal spines) 5, below (to origin of anal fin) 13.5; side of jaw with row of 5-7 molariform teeth. Color of adult silvery grey with narrow dark scale margins, lips yellowish, a large black blotch covering pectoral fin axil, quick to assume pattern of 4 broad, blackish bars on body, the pale interspaces covering 3-4 scale rows; juveniles with black bar through eye, body with 3 dark brown to blackish bars with the 2 posterior bars extending onto the dorsal fin, and each lobe of caudal fin with an orange band (Ref. 2295, 90102).
Biology:  Found in sand and rubble areas near coral reefs. Solitary fish are often encountered, but large adults usually form aggregations of up to about 50 individuals (Ref. 9710). Solitary or in groups (Ref. 90102). Benthopelagic (Ref. 58302). Nocturnal feeders (Ref. 9710). Feed mainly on gastropods, ophiuroids, and echinoids. Pagurids and brachyuran crabs, polychaetes, tunicates, and holothurians are consumed in lesser quantities. Caught mainly with gillnets, traps, spears, and handlines (Ref. 2295). Marketed fresh (Ref. 9775). Ciguatoxic in Marshall Is. (Ref. 171). Minimum depth reported taken from Ref. 128797.
IUCN Red List Status: Least Concern (LC); Date assessed: 09 March 2015 Ref. (126983)
Threat to humans:  reports of ciguatera poisoning
Country info:  Known from Sibuyan, Romblon (Ref. 58652), Lanuza Bay (Ref. 104756), Sarangani Bay, Bongo Island, Moro Gulf (Ref. 106380), and Bantayan Is. in northern Cebu (Ref. 114734). Also Ref. 2295, 48613, 121724.

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