Lates calcarifer (Bloch, 1790)
Apaap,  Apahap,  Apap,  Bolgan,  Bulgan,  Burgan,  Dayang,  Giant seaperch,  Kaka,  Kulapu,  Mata kuting,  Salungsungan,  Apaap,  Apahap,  Bolgan,  Bulgan,  Bulungan,  Katuyot,  Laya,  Mangagat,  Matakating,  Matang pusa,  Poyo,  Sapan,  Solong-solong,  Tul-wan
Lates calcarifer
photo by Ramani Shirantha

Family:  Latidae (Lates perches)
Max. size:  200 cm TL (male/unsexed); max.weight: 60 kg; max. reported age: 35 years
Environment:  demersal; freshwater; brackish; marine; depth range 10 - 40 m, catadromous
Distribution:  Indo-West Pacific: eastern edge of the Persian Gulf to China, Taiwan and southern Japan, southward to southern Papua New Guinea and northern Australia.
Diagnosis:  Dorsal spines (total): 7-9; Dorsal soft rays (total): 10-11; Anal spines: 3-3; Anal soft rays: 7-8. Body elongate; mouth large, slightly oblique, upper jaw extending behind the eye. Lower edge of preopercle serrated, with strong spine at its angle; opercle with a small spine and with a serrated flap above the origin of the lateral line. Caudal fin rounded.
Biology:  Found in coastal waters, estuaries and lagoons, in clear to turbid water (Ref. 5259, 44894). A diadromous fish, inhabiting rivers before returning to the estuaries to spawn. A protandrous hermaphrodite (Ref. 32209). Larvae and young juveniles live in brackish temporary swamps associated with estuaries, and older juveniles inhabit the upper reaches of rivers (Ref. 6390, 44894). Have preference for cover on undercut banks, submerged logs and overhanging vegetation (Ref. 44894). Feed on fishes and crustaceans. They reach 1500-3000 g in one year in ponds under optimum conditions (Ref. 11046, 44894). Juveniles also eat insects (Ref. 44894). Sold fresh and frozen; consumed steamed, pan-fried, broiled and baked (Ref. 9987). A very popular and sought-after fish of very considerable economic importance (Ref. 9799). Presently used for aquaculture in Thailand, Indonesia and Australia (Ref. 9799). Australia's most important commercial fish and one of the most popular angling species (Ref. 44894).
IUCN Red List Status: Least Concern (LC); Date assessed: 15 February 2019 Ref. (126983)
Threat to humans:  harmless
Country info:  Reported from Lake Naujan (Ref. 13446), Lake Mainit and Kalinawan River (Ref. 81829). Recorded as having been or being farmed in rice fields (Ref. 119549). Also Ref. 393, 3281, 7306, 59175.

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