Environment: milieu / climate zone / depth range / distribution range
Freshwater; benthopelagic; pH range: ? - 7.0; depth range 0 - 3 m (Ref. 35381). Tropical; 22°C - 28°C (Ref. 2060)
Central and South America: Mexico to central Argentina.
Size / Weight / Age
Maturity: Lm ?  range ? - ? cm
Max length : 61.0 cm TL male/unsexed; (Ref. 40637); max. published weight: 4.0 kg (Ref. 40637)
Occurs in littoral creeks, over sandy bottoms covered with dead leaves (Ref. 27188). Inhabits also lakes and rivers, but seems to prefer rivers with a very slight current (Ref. 6868). Prefers a muddy bottom covered with leaves and decaying wood, the latter providing for hiding places during the day (Ref. 35381). Feeds on fish and insects (Ref. 27188), benthic zooplankton and crustaceans (Ref. 35381). Omnivorous (Ref. 79585). Mainly nocturnal (Ref. 11225). Possesses poisonous spiny rays. Its sex ratio is 2:1 in favor of females. The male's reproductive apparatus includes multi-lobed testicles and accessory organs for secretion and storage. Fertilization is external. Non-sticking demersal eggs (1.1 to 2.8 mm diameter) are laid down, hatching after about 48 hours at 22°C. Ten days later, the larvae weigh approximately 100 mg but growth is slow (0.5 to 1.15 g per day).
Life cycle and mating behavior
Maturity | Reproduction | Spawning | Eggs | Fecundity | Larvae
Hernández, C.L., A. Ortega-Lara, G.C. Sánchez-Garcés, M.H. Alford, 2015. Genetic and morphometric evidence for the recognition of several recently synonymized species of Trans-Andean Rhamdia (Pisces: Siluriformes: Heptapteridae). Copeia 103(3):563-579. (Ref. 108688)
IUCN Red List Status (Ref. 126983)
Threat to humans
Fisheries: minor commercial; aquaculture: commercial
Estimates based on models
Phylogenetic diversity index (Ref. 82804
= 0.5000 [Uniqueness, from 0.5 = low to 2.0 = high].
Bayesian length-weight: a=0.00891 (0.00753 - 0.01055), b=3.02 (2.97 - 3.07), in cm total length, based on LWR estimates for this species (Ref. 93245
Trophic level (Ref. 69278
): 3.9 ±0.3 se; based on diet studies.
Resilience (Ref. 120179
): High, minimum population doubling time less than 15 months (Fec=41,334).
Fishing Vulnerability (Ref. 59153
): Moderate vulnerability (44 of 100).
Nutrients (Ref. 124155
): Calcium = 91.5 [50.5, 198.1] mg/100g; Iron = 1.02 [0.58, 1.80] mg/100g; Protein = 16.5 [15.4, 17.6] %; Omega3 = 0.239 [0.098, 0.592] g/100g; Selenium = 51.7 [20.4, 122.1] μg/100g; VitaminA = 55.8 [19.4, 147.0] μg/100g; Zinc = 1.55 [1.06, 2.24] mg/100g (wet weight);