Teleostei (teleosts) > Siluriformes
(Catfishes) > Pimelodidae
Etymology: Hypophthalmus: Greek, hypo = under + Greek, ophthalmos = eye (Ref. 45335).
More on authors: Spix & Agassiz.
Environment: milieu / climate zone / depth range / distribution range
Freshwater; pelagic; potamodromous (Ref. 51243); depth range ? - 37 m (Ref. 5217). Tropical
South America: Amazon and Orinoco River basins and Atlantic coastal rivers of Guyana and Suriname (Ref. 36506). Reported from Paraná River (Ref. 56308).
Length at first maturity / Size / Weight / Age
Maturity: Lm 25.6  range ? - 30 cm
Max length : 57.5 cm TL male/unsexed; (Ref. 5217); common length : 45.0 cm TL male/unsexed; (Ref. 5217); max. published weight: 1.3 kg (Ref. 5217)
Pelagic species which lives in schools near the surface of the water (Ref. 35381). Found over soft muddy bottoms. Has no teeth in its jaws but possesses many long gill rakers that are used as a sieve for feeding on planktonic crustaceans like cladocerans, copepods and ostracods (Ref. 35381, 6868). Also feeds on debris, other plankton (Ref. 35381). Appears to follow the plankton's vertical movements during the day. Ovaries start to develop I November when the water level rises. Fractional spawning occurs between February and April. The female lays down 50,000 to 100,000 eggs according to its weight. Juveniles inhabit the lower part of streams in estuaries, adult are found more upstream (Ref. 35381). Marketed fresh and salted.
Life cycle and mating behavior
Maturity | Reproduction | Spawning | Eggs | Fecundity | Larvae
Cervigón, F., R. Cipriani, W. Fischer, L. Garibaldi, M. Hendrickx, A.J. Lemus, R. Márquez, J.M. Poutiers, G. Robaina and B. Rodriguez, 1992. Fichas FAO de identificación de especies para los fines de la pesca. Guía de campo de las especies comerciales marinas y de aquas salobres de la costa septentrional de Sur América. FAO, Rome. 513 p. Preparado con el financiamento de la Comisión de Comunidades Europeas y de NORAD. (Ref. 5217)
IUCN Red List Status (Ref. 126983)
Threat to humans
Fisheries: minor commercial
Estimates based on models
Phylogenetic diversity index (Ref. 82804
= 0.5625 [Uniqueness, from 0.5 = low to 2.0 = high].
Bayesian length-weight: a=0.00603 (0.00512 - 0.00709), b=3.12 (3.07 - 3.17), in cm total length, based on LWR estimates for this species (Ref. 93245
Trophic level (Ref. 69278
): 2.9 ±0.30 se; based on food items.
Resilience (Ref. 120179
): Medium, minimum population doubling time 1.4 - 4.4 years (K=0.12-0.27).
Fishing Vulnerability (Ref. 59153
): Moderate vulnerability (37 of 100).
Nutrients (Ref. 124155
): Calcium = 92 [44, 205] mg/100g; Iron = 1.76 [0.85, 3.58] mg/100g; Protein = 16.7 [15.3, 18.2] %; Omega3 = 0.283 [0.110, 0.710] g/100g; Selenium = 68.4 [26.6, 175.8] μg/100g; VitaminA = 46.7 [15.5, 145.8] μg/100g; Zinc = 1.66 [1.11, 2.49] mg/100g (wet weight); based on nutrient studies.